By: Lauren and Nouran
Bucholtz, M. (2002). “Youth and Cultural Practice.” Annual Review of Anthropology, 31, pp.525-52.
“While youths’ relationships to popular media are often associated with unattainable images and capitalist urgings toward comsumption, media representations may also be a source of knowledge and agency . . . In face, commodification is not a barrier to the perception of authentic cultural practice . . . In any case, the relationship between resistance, authenticity, and cultural appropriation can be extremely complex.” (542)
The key part to this quote is the “source of knowledge and agency.” Bands that have a counter culture message or aesthetic don’t have to dilute it for mainstream media. Videos can be uploaded and music can be played in its raw form, seeking only the audience that would appreciate it. Local Ottawa bands like Saucy Jack, Chasing Curiosity, and Breaking Sundown can just play music the way they want to, and with the Internet, gain a following. More mainstream bands that would be in this vein are Alexisonfire, Amanda Palmer, and Imogen Heap.
Jones, S. (2000). “Music and the Internet.” Popular Music, 19:2, pp.217-229.
“The music listening habits of many white-collar workers, students and others who use personal computers on a daily basis have undergone significant change . . . The connection of the personal computer to the Internet also brings potential for connection to a wide variety of music, broadening the scope of listening possibilities, but also potentially overwhelming the listener with choice.” (218)
Because computers are so ubiquitous, sharing music is a lot easier. We can take our own music files from our own music collections and send them to our friends with a click of a button, which is very problematic for those trying to make money. This hasn’t really changed from the days of taping off the radio, it’s just more rapid.
“The issue that has been uppermost on the music industry’s agenda in regard to music distribution and new technologies has been the disintermediation and concomitant disruption of routinised business practices and processes that have accreted over nearly a century . . . It is important to keep in mind that the capitalisation and market power of major labels may significantly affect the degree of disintermediation and it consequences as well as the development of online media and tools themselves.” (219).
The music industry is struggling to maintain its power because of all the different ways people can participate in what their selling, and try to make it their own. The more self produced artists there are on the Internet, the less business they get, unless they find a way to capitalise off of those artists’ success in a way that would please the artists.
“One performer noted that jamming online ‘gives you and advantage over your own prejudices . . .you won’t know if you’re playing with someone who’s eleven years old or severely disabled, so it won’t affect the music you make with one another. It’s about music quarantined from image bias.” (220)
This one really speaks for itself. Composing software with Internet capabilities is bringing the world closer musically.
“In addition to making music available, information about it must be available, too.” (220)
“In its recent reports, Jupiter [Communications] has ‘urged record labels to embrace the online world as a marketing tool, as a means of combating piracy, as a way to earn more revenue by cutting out retailers, and as a less expensive distribution model(Broersma 1998)” (222)
These last two quotes speak to the growing importance of the Internet as a marketing tool. Musicians can generate more publicity faster and in a much easier way. In this way they can generate more work, and hence more revenue.
Malecki, E. J. (2002). “The Economic Geography of the Internet’s Infrastructure.” Economic Geography, 78:4, pp.399-424.
“To a large degree, the evolving infrastructure of the Internet is reinforcing old patters of agglomeration: the world cities are alive and well. At the same time, new technologies cause new “disturbances” that can result in the emergence of new clusters –perhaps particularly evident in the weightless context of an Internet world in which the cost of transport does not matter (Quah 2000)” (419)
Just like there’s more bandwidth available in big cities, the record label supported artists will always have more presence in the everyday media than most YouTube stars. While the Internet favors publicity for the indie musicians, the big artists who already have the support and publicity will find that their music is more integrated in different cultures and media due to its availability.
McPherson, T. (2009). “Introduction: Media Studies and the Digital Humanities.” Cinema Journal, 48:2, pp.119-123.
“The practices facilitated via YouTube instigate a shift in how consumers understand their relationship to media products and also encourage a networked, public mode of visual expression.” (123)
Interactiveness. The YouTube star isn’t a star in the same sense as the past. The YouTube star is accessible, and there is a direct or semi direct mode of communication from fans to artists. It’s a two-way relationship, fans can respond to artists’ videos and artists can respond to fans’ videos.
Stokes, M. (2004). “Music and the Global Order.” Annual Review of Anthropology, 33, pp.47-72.
“The major recording corporations no longer are considered the only site of agency in the global circulation of musical style. A number of analyses stress the importance of state, civic and other institutional sponsors of world music scenes, radio and television broadcasting, small independent record labels, academic ethnomusicology programs, civic arts exchanges and concert-promoting organizations” (50)
The big labels aren’t playing as big of a role as before because smaller organisations can use the Internet to promote their services, their causes, and their art.
“The bottom-up perspective has been broadened theoretically. The production of locality and place is no longer considered the inevitable and benign result of small-scale, face-to-face interaction, but instead a project in which many actors have an interest and a stake.” (50)
The artists are starting to control production more than the production companies themselves. They get to leave their own mark on their work, and shape it exactly the way they want it with few corporate concerns.
“The term world music was heavily promoted by the music press in the United Kingdom, and later in the United States, and eventually stuck. Billboard began a world music chard and a Grammy category for world music was devised in 1991 (Taylor 1997) . . . The expression world music also incorporated the work of rock musicians such as Brian Eno, Peter Gabriel, Robert Fripp, and David Byrne, and later, Sting, Bjork, and others who incorporate non-Western sounds through multitracking, sampling, and live performance.” (p. 50)
This is evidence of new music coming from the Internet age. World music showed us different types of music from all over the world, which are now being integrated into all types of music. This globalisation of music is slowly becoming the mainstream.